Press Releases

New Global Analysis Reveals Extreme Vulnerability of Primary Forests

Contact: Stephen Sautner, Wildlife Conservation Society, 1-718-220-3682; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

  • Authors say just 22 percent of primary forests are located in protected areas and that less than 5 percent of original primary forest is left on Earth
  • Half the world’s remaining primary forests located in U.S., Canada, Russia, Australia, and New Zealand
  • Analysis provides clear policy recommendations to safeguard primary forests into the future
  • Full Report

New York  – A team of conservationists has published a new global analysis and map showing the extremely precarious state of the world’s primary forests. The analysis is featured in a paper appearing in the early online edition of the journal Conservation Letters.

The analysis reveals that only 5 percent of the world’s pre-agricultural primary forest cover is now found in protected areas.

Primary forests – largely ignored by policy makers and under increasing land use threats – are forests where there are no visible indications of human activities, especially industrial-scale land use, and ecological processes have not been significantly disrupted. These forests are home to an extraordinary richness of biodiversity; up to 57 percent of all tropical forest species are dependent on primary forest habitat and the ecological processes they provide for their survival.

The analysis shows that almost 98 percent of primary forest is found within 25 countries with around half located in five developed countries: U.S., Canada, Russia, Australia and New Zealand. Primary forest protection is therefore the joint responsibility of developed as well as developing countries and is a matter of global concern, according to the authors.

Lead author Professor Brendan Mackey of Australia’s Griffith University, warns that industrial logging, mining and agriculture gravely threaten primary forests and those outside of protected areas are especially vulnerable. He says that policies are urgently needed to reduce pressure to open up primary forests for industrial land use.

“International negotiations are failing to halt the loss of the world’s most important primary forests,” says Professor Mackey. “In the absence of specific policies for primary forest protection in biodiversity and climate change treaties, their unique biodiversity values and ecosystem services will continue to be lost in both developed and developing countries.”

Said co-author James Watson of the Wildlife Conservation Society: “Primary forests are a matter of significant conservation concern. Most forest-endemic biodiversity needs primary forest for their long-term persistence, and large intact forest landscapes are under increasingly pressure from incompatible land use.”

The authors identify four new actions that would provide a solid policy foundation for key international negotiations, including forest-related multilateral agreements, to help ensure that primary forests persist into the 21st century:

  • Recognize primary forests as a matter of global concern within international negotiations, and not just an problem in developing nations;
  • Incorporate primary forests into environmental accounting including their special contributions of their ecosystem services including freshwater and watershed services and use a science-based definition to distinguish primary forests;
  • Prioritize the principle of avoided loss – emphasize policies that seek to avoid any further biodiversity loss and emissions from primary forest deforestation and degradation;
  • Universally accept the important role of indigenous and community conserved areas – governments could use primary forest protection as a mechanism within multilateral environmental agreements to support sustainable livelihoods for the extensive populations of forest-dwelling peoples, especially traditional peoples, in developed and developing countries.

The paper's authors are Brendan Mackay of Griffith University, Dominick A. DellaSala of the Geos Institute, Cyril Kormos of The Wild Foundation, David Lindenmayer and Sonia Hugh of Australian National University, Noelle Kumpel of Zoological Society of London, Barbara Zimmerman of International Conservation Fund of Canada, Virginia Young of Forest Alive, Sean Foley of The Samdhana Institute, Kriton Arsenis of RoadFree Initiative, and James Watson of the Wildlife Conservation Society. The authors are world experts in forest ecology, conservation biology, international policy, and practical forest management issues.

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New Studies Show Severe Fires are Natural and Ecologically Beneficial to Sierra Nevada Forests

August 8, 2014

Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D.; Geos Institute , 541-482-4459 x 302; 541-621-7223 (cell)
William Baker, Ph.D., University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY; 970-317-8162 

Ashland, OR - Two recently published scientific studies add to a growing body of research on the ecological importance of forest fires, even severe ones, to the integrity of fire-dependent forests in the western U.S, particularly California’s Sierra region.

One study, published in the Natural Areas Journal, documented the ecological importance of forest fires in regenerating unique habitat for numerous plants and wildlife in the Sierra, including rare and threatened ones. The other published in Ecosphere compared historical records of forest fires to today’s fires and concluded that today’s fires in the Sierra are burning in size and intensity similar to the way fires once burned. 

According to Dominick DellaSala, Chief Scientist of the Ashland-Oregon based Geos Institute and lead author of  “Complex early seral forests of the Sierra Nevada: What are they and how can they be managed for ecological integrity?,” “Post-fire landscapes are often falsely portrayed as “moonscapes,” but they actually have some of the highest levels of plant and wildlife diversity of any Sierra forest type with levels comparable to what we see in the region’s more appreciated old-growth forests.” 

A key finding of DellaSala’s research showed that post-fire landscapes are rich in large dead trees (snags) that connect a regenerating forest to the eventual old-growth forest that develops over time via the process of forest succession. Imperiled wildlife that depend on snags as “biological legacies” include the Black-backed Woodpecker, a fire dependent indicator species under consideration for listing as threatened due to dramatic losses of its post-fire habitat from logging, and the California Spotted Owl that forages in post-fire landscapes also damaged by post-fire logging.

DellaSala’s findings are relevant to controversial post-fire logging projects that inevitably follow most forest fires, he added “post-fire logging and related tree planting removes the very components that forests need to regenerate themselves and this is not “restorative” as claimed.” DellaSala was also lead author on a letter signed by over 200 scientists last January that urged the Forest Service to refrain from massive post-fire logging in the aftermath of the 2013 Rim fire on the Stanislaus National Forest.

Another study, “Historical forest structure and fire in Sierran mixed-conifer forests reconstructed from General Land Office Survey data” found that severe fires have long been a natural feature of Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. According to William Baker, Emeritus Professor of Ecology at the University of Wyoming, “Contrary to what some believe, fires in Sierran mixed-conifers once did, and still do, burn in a pattern of mixed severities that include large patches, up to several thousand acres, of fire-killed trees as part of the natural fire cycle in this region.” 

Baker tested prevailing assumptions about uncharacteristic fires by examining the US government’s General Land Office surveys from 1865 to 1885 and in these surveys examined the recorded forest composition by early surveyors as it related to historical fire influences. 

Baker found that there is actually currently less high-severity fire in Sierra forests now than there was prior to the historical surveys, and noted that the current deficit of high-severity fire can be detrimental to forest ecosystems. Logging proposals to reduce fuels and fire severity would actually reduce, not restore, historical forest heterogeneity important to wildlife and resiliency. 

Both studies reflect a growing scientific awareness of the ecological role of forest fires throughout the West, particularly severe ones. For example, a team of eleven fire scientists in February 2014 that included both DellaSala and Baker used a variety of research methods and found similar historical evidence of high-severity fires throughout fire-dependent forests in the western US and Canada. Their findings were published in PLoS One and run counter to the widely held assumptions that most forest fires today are burning uncharacteristically severe.

All three studies made similar recommendations for communities living adjacent to fire-dependent forests. Specifically, increased prioritization of fuel treatments are needed nearest homes given escalating costs of fighting fires in the backcountry where suppression forces are particularly ineffective during drought years.

View our “fireside chat” on strategies for addressing fires in a changing climate and other ecological benefits of fires.

> Click here for a National Public Radio interview with Dr. Dominick DellaSala (8/8/14)

Phase Out of Tongass Old-Growth Logging Can Begin Immediately

For Immediate Release on June 25, 2014

Contacts: Catherine Mater, President, Mater Engineering (541-753-7335); Dominick DellaSala, Ph.D., Chief Scientist, Geos Institute (541-482-4459 x 302, 541-621-7223); Nathaniel Lawrence, Natural Resources Defense Council  (360-534-9900); Jim Furnish, Retired Siuslaw National Forest Supervisor (240-271-1650)

A recently released study of second growth availability on the Tongass National Forest shows that the U.S. Forest Service can end industrial old growth logging there within 5 years while, if it chooses, still increasing the total volume of trees harvested. The Forest Service announced in May that it was considering transitioning timber sales from old growth to second growth but within 10 to 15 years. The new study shows that transition can begin immediately and finish in no more than 5 years, shifting logging to second growth in previously logged and roaded areas outside of sensitive resource lands.

A 2014 study update commissioned by Geos Institute and Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) conclusively shows that there is immediate access to supplies of second growth trees that could be harvested in southeast Alaska as an alternative to harvesting old growth trees. The original study conducted by Oregon-based Mater Ltd. released in 2013 used Forest Service and Tongass Futures Roundtable data to estimate the number of second growth acres already pre-commercially thinned that could be harvested at 55-years of age.  Prior research financed by The Nature Conservancy determined the desired log characteristics for a dedicated small log processing operation on Prince of Wales Island could be obtained from 55-year old hemlock and spruce stands.  

The prior Mater study lacked spatially explicit analysis that was then updated by conducting GIS analysis in the targeted regions.  With funding from Geos and NRDC, and assistance from the Tongass National Forest (for GIS data supply), that spatially explicit analysis was completed by Mater Ltd. and Oregon-based Conservation Biology Institute in May 2014.  

“We needed to confirm two baselines in the 2014 on the ground analysis:  that 55-year old stands are actually there (not estimated), and that those stands are immediately accessible by currently open roads within the Tongass National Forest” stated Catherine Mater, President of Mater Ltd.  “We now are able to clearly show where those stands are located, and how much volume can be generated from them as an offset to harvesting old growth timber.”  

According to Mater, “Working with the Forest Service was crucial in securing necessary GIS data for the on the ground analysis.”  The analysis shows that beginning in 2015 over 25-million log board feet of timber per year derived from second growth could be harvested from the Prince of Wales area, increasing to an annual and sustained supply of over 40 million log board feet.  

To help facilitate awareness of these new findings, a preliminary public portal link has been established through Conservation Biology Institute’s Databasin program.

According to Dominick DellaSala, Chief Scientist of Geos Institute and author of Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World, “We have a once-in-a lifetime opportunity to stop needless logging of old growth in one of the world’s last relatively intact rainforests with the added benefit of keeping carbon in the forest and out of the atmosphere where logging these forests would otherwise put it.” 

The President’s Climate Action Plan of June 2013 and November 2013 Executive Order on Climate Change recognize the role that forests play in mitigating climate change impacts by absorbing (sequestering) atmospheric carbon and storing it long-term in long-lived trees. The Mater report shows how the Tongass, among the world’s most carbon dense forests, can be protected for their climate and wildlife benefits and still meet the region’s demand for timber supply.  

Neil Lawrence, with Natural Resources Defense Council, also called on the Administration to act swiftly on these findings. “The Forest Service has a unique opportunity to end controversial timber sales and promote a robust economy in the region that is ecologically responsible. The Mater report demonstrates that transition is possible right now. That’s good news for everyone in the region who benefits from the Tongass’ amazing natural values, as well as local businesses looking for a stable, low-conflict future. All the Forest Service has to do is get on with the transition ASAP.”

The Tongass is not alone in efforts to transition to more sustainable forestry practices.  Jim Furnish, former Siuslaw National Forest Supervisor, began a similar transition in the 1990s on the Siuslaw NF. “Back in the 1990s, we were also faced with the difficulty of a rapid transition. But we determined to make it happen as quickly as possible, and our local timber industry responded well. Today, the Siuslaw harvests 40 million board feet a year by cutting only second growth.”

The Mater report noted that the Forest Service should begin a pilot program immediately to demonstrate the economic feasibility of local processing for second growth logs. Second growth of similar age is already being utilized by Alaska’s private sector, suggesting that Tongass logs would be economically viable as well. Current subsidies for the Tongass timber program could be redirected to assist local mills in retooling for smaller logs. 

>> Click here to read Jim Furnish's 6/7/14 opinion piece in the Juneau Empire.

>> Click here to listen to Dominick DellaSala's 6/7/14 interview on Jefferson Public Radio.

U.S. Forests Are Pivotal in Efforts to Slow Climate Change

For Immediate Release on June 18, 2014

Contacts: Dr. Dominick DellaSala, Geos Institute (541-482-4459 x 302; 541-621-7223); Dr. Olga Krankina, Oregon State University (541-737-1780) 

Ashland, OR – Scientists today called on the Obama Administration to do more to protect the nation’s mature “high-biomass” forests because of their unique climate change benefits. While the President has taken bold steps to reduce carbon dioxide pollution from coal and other fossil fuels, he has sidestepped efforts to protect productive older forests that store massive amounts of carbon and are key to helping stabilize runaway climate change. The study of high-biomass forests was published in the July 2014 issue of Environmental Management

Older forests (mature and old growth) are a critical part of the global biological carbon cycle that contribute to climate stabilization by uptake and storage of atmospheric carbon in live and dead trees, foliage and soils. The oldest and most productive forests are where the trees are providing a long-term “sink” for atmospheric carbon, absorbing and holding on to it like a sponge for centuries.  Those forests are the primary target for logging and when they are cut down up to half of their stored carbon is released into the atmosphere as a carbon dioxide pollutant within just a few years. This loss is not made up for by planting trees or storing carbon in wood products as forest products have a short “shelf life” compared to mature forest that sequesters (absorbs) and stores carbon for centuries.

According to lead author Dr. Olga Krankina, Oregon State University faculty and a member of the Nobel-prize winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), our findings demonstrate that “high-biomass forests occur on less than 3% of the nation’s forest base but the Pacific Northwest holds over half these forests. The new study shows that  68% of BLM forests in the Pacific Northwest are high-biomass; only National Parks have higher proportion of high-biomass forest in their forest area.” 

Krankina led a team of scientists that assembled multiple data sources on forest carbon using remote sensing from the Space Shuttle, Landsat, and USDA Forest Service forest inventory plots to map the location of high-biomass forests. Over an 8-year period (2000-2008) for which data were readily available, losses to these forests were greatest on private lands where logging was the primary cause. In comparison, loss of high-biomass forests to fire on public lands was ~30% lower than logging-related losses.

The study concluded that the level of protection for older productive forests in the Pacific Northwest is inadequate to help stabilize the climate and ranges from 31% in Washington to only 9% in Oregon, meaning that the vast majority of these climate-critical forests are vulnerable to logging.  Planned revisions to the Northwest Forest Plan would greatly undermine the existing limited protection of older forests. New federal climate change initiatives also fail to recognize the value of forests as stores of carbon and the need to protect them from logging to prevent the release of stored carbon into the atmosphere as CO2. 

Dr. Dominick A. DellaSala, Chief Scientist of Geos Institute and co-author, stated “While the President has taken bold steps to draw attention to the growing climate change crisis, he has done very little to enlist forests in the climate change solution. From the massive Coast Redwoods of California to the towering spruce trees of the Tongass rainforest in Alaska, older forests help stabilize the climate, clean our air, give us drinking water, and support the region’s outdoor economies. Protecting them would be a flagship accomplishment of the President’s efforts to stem runaway climate change.”

DellaSala used these and related findings to show older forests in Oregon store more carbon per acre than nearly any forest on Earth while providing life-giving ecosystem benefits that will be in short supply in a changing climate such as clean water. Older forest benefits will become increasingly important as a refuge for climate-forced wildlife migrations in search of suitable climate. However, these same forests are now on the chopping block as Oregon Senator Ron Wyden has introduced legislation to double logging levels on BLM lands in western Oregon. Such logging would result in carbon dioxide pollution that rivals Oregon’s dirtiest coal-fired power plant. Similarly, in Alaska, old-growth rainforests are still being logged on the Tongass and these forests are among the most stable carbon stores on the planet. 

High biomass Forests of the Contiguous United States

US biomass


West Braces for Active Fire Season as Scientists View Most Fires as Ecologically Beneficial

Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D., President and Chief Scientist; Geos Institute
541.482.4459 x302; 541.621.7223 (cell)
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

Ashland, Oregon, USA; May 7, 2014

Fire scientists released a new synthesis on the ecological benefits of large wildfires, including those that kill most vegetation in fire-adapted forests, grasslands, and shrublands of the western U.S.

Dominick DellaSala, Chief Scientist of Geos Institute, stated “Contrary to popular belief, most large wildfires are not catastrophes of nature as many plant and wildlife species depend on them to restore habitat in short supply and to replenish soil nutrients. We can co-exist with wildfires by thinning vegetation nearest homes and in fire-prone tree plantations, and allowing large fires to burn unimpeded in the backcountry under safe conditions as they are ecologically beneficial.”

According to the National Interagency Fire Center, California, southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, southern Alaska, and Oregon could experience large fires this year given dry conditions. However, dry fire-adapted regions generally have experienced substantially less fires compared to historical times due to ongoing fire suppression. Suppression costs in some years have approached $5 billion with limited effects on slowing large fires that are mostly driven by weather events. The Forest Service already has signaled that it is likely to run out of wildfire suppression funds long before the end of the fire season.

Fireside Chat presents the latest science on wildfire’s ecosystem benefits, including 9 key findings, impacts of climate change, post-fire logging, and fire suppression, and ways to help homeowners prepare for fires. It includes links to fire videos and fire researchers. Its main purpose is to serve as an information tool for the press, decision makers, and land managers interested in the ecosystem benefits of large fires that have been under-appreciated. Related to the release of Fireside Chat is an article on the ecological benefits of large wildfires posted on “Counter Punch.”

Call To Keep Intact Forests Free Of Roads


Kriton Arsenis, Member of the European Parliament, RoadFree Initiative, +32 22833537, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

William Laurance, Distinguished Research Professor and Australian Laureate at James Cook University in Australia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Dominick DellaSala, President and Chief Scientist, Geos Institute, United States, +541-482-4459 ext. 302, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Sean Foley, Fellow & Chairman of the Board, The Samdhana Institute, Indonesia, +62 811 199-7560, +856 20 5872-0379, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Barbara Zimmerman, Director, Kayapo Project, International Conservation Fund of Canada, +1 416 487 0879, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

BRUSSELS – On the eve of the 2nd International Day of Forests on Friday, March 21st, scientists join MEP Kriton Arsenis in calling for an urgent response to the threats from road development to the world’s last intact primary forests.

Less than a third of Earth’s forests remain undisturbed by human activities. Road building, often driven by industrial activities, is one of the main causes of intact forest loss. RoadFree, an initiative by Member of the European Parliament Kriton Arsenis, was specially created to address this issue.

“95% of forest loss occurs within 50 km of a road. Scientific reports and satellite imagery have demonstrated road building is a major driver of deforestation from the Amazon to Indonesian and Congo Basin forests. Keeping our last intact forests free of roads is a cost-efficient way to protect the climate, halt biodiversity loss and keep illegal traffickers at bay”, says Kriton Arsenis. <read more>


Northwest Forest Plan provides co-benefits to people and wildlife in coastal rainforests

   Dominick A. DellaSala,
Ph.D. Geos Institute, 541-482-4459 x 302
   Patric Brandt, Ph.D. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch
          Partenkirchen, Germany; Leuphana University Lüneburg, Germany;
          +49 4131 677 1571; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ashland, Oregon and Lüneburg, Germany – Scientists from the Pacific Northwest and Germany released new findings in the journal Biological Conservation documenting linkages between the richness of rainforest plants and wildlife and the provisioning of key ecosystem services in coastal rainforests of North America, particularly those managed under the landmark Northwest Forest Plan.

Scientists Question Wyden's O&C Logging Plan

Contacts:         Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D. (541-482-4459 x 302; 541-621-7223)
                         Robert Hughes, Ph.D. (208-354-2632)

Two preeminent scientific societies believe plan increases extinction risks for salmon, other threatened wildlife

Washington, DC —Two international scientific organizations, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS), are questioning the assumptions behind Senator Ron Wyden’s plan to double logging levels on publicly owned Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands in Western Oregon. In testimony before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, the organizations raised serious concerns that the Oregon and California Lands Act of 2013 (S. 1784) abandons science-based management of public lands.

Statement of the Geos Institute on O&C lands

Contact: Dominick DellaSala, Geos Institute, 541/482-4459 x302

Oregon's O&C BLM lands provide drinking water for over 1.5 million people, contain the region's last mature and old-growth forests, and provide habitat for endangered wildlife and salmon. These BLM lands are managed under the guidelines of the Northwest Forest Plan, a global model of ecosystem management and conservation on 25 million acres of public lands from northern California to Washington.

Geos Institute stands ready to work with Senator Wyden to find a common sense solution to O&C lands that provides timber and jobs from appropriate thinning of small trees for fuels reduction and restoration purposes in tree plantations. We urge Senator Wyden not to unravel the Northwest Forest Plan to increase clearcut logging for timber volume because hundreds of scientists have supported the plan's protection of salmon, drinking water, and mature forests.

250 Scientists Concerned about Proposed Post-fire Logging Legislation

MEDIA ADVISORY - October 31, 2013

Contact: Dominick DellaSala, Chief Scientist, Geos Institute  541/482-4459 x305 or 541/621-7223

In an open letter to the U.S. Congress, 250 scientists request that Congress show restraint in speeding up logging in the wake of this year’s wildfires, most notably the Rim fire in the Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park.

The scientists raised concerns that currently proposed legislation (HR1526, which passed in the House in September, and HR3188, now before the House) would seriously undermine the ecological integrity of forest ecosystems, setting back their ability to regenerate after wildfires.

The letter also pointed to the numerous ecosystem benefits from wildfires and how post-fire landscapes are as rich in plants and wildlife as old-growth ecosystems.

Click here to see the full text of the scientists' letter to Congress.

Click here for a Nov. 2, 2013 Associated Press article about the scientists' letter.

New Study Shows Saving Tongass Old Growth Can Happen in Just Five Years

For Immediate Release - October 28, 2013

Dominick A. DellaSala, Geos Institute – (541) 482-4459 x 302, (541)-621-7223 (cell)
Catherine Mater, Mater Ltd. – (541) 753-7335

Ashland, OR - A new report prepared by Oregon-based Mater Ltd., using updated Forest Service timber acreage and age class distribution data, shows that the agency could complete transition to supplying a second growth logging economy in Southeast Alaska within 5 years.

In May 2010, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced a framework to transition away from old growth logging on the Tongass National Forest, something the Forest Service said it believed could be done “quickly.” Early this month, Forest Service officials announced their “focus on identifying the timber base suitable to support a transition to young-growth management, in a way that supports the continued viability of the forest industry in Southeast Alaska.

The Mater report shows such a transition could take place in as little as 5 years, shifting exclusively to previously logged stands of second growth, in the current land base already designated for logging and close to existing roads. Along with logging and manufacturing infrastructure adapted to work with small diameter logs, the transition would require changes to rules about how soon second growth stands can be cut. The report also recommends an aggressive regime to research and identify new value-added lumber grades and products to meet existing market demand.

First Global Assessment of Roadless Areas Presented at International Congress

Contact: Dominick DellaSala, Geos Institute, 541/482-4459 x302

Last July in Baltimore, representatives of the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) participated in a Roadless Area Symposium at the biennial International Congress for Conservation Biology 2013. Scientists described their research about global and regional perspectives on conserving roadless areas and shared preliminary results from the first global assessment of roadless areas.

Drinking Water for Over 1.5 Million Oregonians At-Risk If Logging Increased on BLM Holdings

Defazio Logging Trust Proposal - More Harm than Good

CONTACT: Randi Spivak, Vice President of Government Affairs, Geos Institute (310) 779-4894

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Three proposals to address payments to counties were considered today at a hearing of the Public Lands and Environmental Regulation Subcommittee of the House Natural Resources Committee, including H.R. ____, “Restoring Healthy Forests for Healthy Communities Act” (Hastings); and H.R. ____, “O&C Trust, Conservation, and Jobs Act” (DeFazio, Walden, Schrader); and H.R. 1294, “Self-Sufficient Community Lands Act of 2013” (Labrador).

All three would effectively privatize federal public forestlands by creating legally binding fiduciary trusts for the sole purpose of providing revenues to counties, resulting in industrialized clearcuts across the landscape. The DeFazio-Walden-Schrader proposal would effectively privatize 1.5 million acres of public forests Western Oregon.

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